Latin name: Platanus acerifolia
Source material: Pollen
Common names: Maple leaf sycamore, London plane tree, American sycamore
Synonyms: P. hispanica, P. hybrida
This is a somewhat variable species. It is often considered to be a hybrid of P. orientalis and P. occidentalis.
Not to be confused with the Maple tree (Acer spp.), i.e. Box-elder (A. negundo)
The London plane, easily recognised by the bark, which exfoliates in large flakes, is renowned as a street tree, particularly in Europe. The origin of this hybrid is uncertain. It is found planted from southern and central Europe to western Asia, North America, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, especially in urban areas. In America the tree probably crossed with a native variety and thus looks different from the European species. Over half of the trees on London streets are Plane trees, and Philadelphia has over 500,000.
The London plane is a large deciduous tree in a spreading form, with heavy, slightly drooping branches, reaching 21 – 30 m in height, and normally with a single stem clear of branches to a considerable height. The bark is mottled cream, grey, olive, and light-brown and usually but not always flakes in patches, creating a dappled appearance. The trunk may look rugged.
The triangular-ovate ”maple-like” leaf is medium- to dark-green, paler on the underside, and mat to glossy on the top. The leaves turn yellow-brown in autumn.
The green flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and appear in April in the Northern Hemisphere. The tree is wind-pollinated, and the pollen is thought to be very allergenic.
The seeds/fruits are syncarps of achenes, about 2.5 cm in diameter. They change from green to brown in October and persist into winter.
The tree is found in woodland and gardens and lining streets.
Allergens of 17-18 kDa, 22 kDa, 43 kDa and 52 kDa have been isolated (1-4). The 17-18 kDa protein has been identified as Pla a 1 and appears to be a major allergen (3). The 43 kDa protein, now identified as Pla a 2, and the 52 kDa one were found to have IgE-binding prevalences of 83 and 42%, respectively (4).
To date, the following allergens have been characterised:
- Pla a 1, an 18 kDa protein, an invertase inhibitor (5-8).
- Pla a 2, a 43 kDa protein, a polygalacturonase (4,6,9).
- Pla a 3, a 10 kDa lipid transfer protein (4,10).
- Pla a Profilin (5,11-12).
Pla a 1 is recognised by up to 92% of monosensitised London plane tree-allergic patients and 83% of polysensitised patients (4,7).
Pla a 2 is involved in the allergic responses of 84% of patients with London plane tree pollen allergy and represents 52% of the total IgE-binding capacity of London plane tree extract (9).
In the Mediterranean area, Pla a 3 is a minor allergen (27.3%) in London plane pollen-allergic patients without food allergy, and a major allergen (63.8%) in London plane pollen-allergic patients with Peach allergy (10).
An extensive cross-reactivity among the different individual species of the genus could be expected (13).
Pla a 3, a lipid transfer protein, is a major cross-reactive allergen in Plane pollen-allergic patients with Peach allergy (10).
Other studies have indicated cross-reactivity between London plane pollen and food, but the cross-reactive allergen was not described. In a study of 56 patients allergic to food, skin prick tests demonstrated a positive correlation between London plane pollen and Hazelnut, Peanut, Banana and Celery. Inhibition studies confirmed strong cross-reactivity between London plane pollen and Hazelnut and Banana, and intermediate cross-reactivity with Celery and Peanut (14).
Similarly, in a study assessing the possible association of oral allergy syndrome with London plane tree pollen allergy, of 720 patients evaluated, 61 (8.48%) were sensitised to pollen from this tree. Food allergy was observed in 32 (52.45%) of the 61 patients sensitised to this tree’s pollen. The food allergens most frequently implicated were Hazelnut, Peach, Apple, Peanut, Maize, Chick pea and Lettuce. The authors suggested that oral allergy syndrome in these patients may have been caused by primary respiratory sensitisation to London plane tree pollen, and that profilin may be the responsible allergen (15).
More recently, IgE reactivity to profilin was studied using a pool of sera from 23 patients with London plane pollen allergy and food allergy. Inhibition assays conducted with Hazelnut, Apple peel, Peanut, Chick pea and Peanut extracts demonstrated cross-reactivity, but neither the profilin nor Pla a 1 nor Pla a 2 could explain the strong cross-reactivity demonstrated (11).
Further evidence for cross-reactivity between London plane tree pollen and foods was that London plane tree-specific immunotherapy resulted in a significant decrease in food allergy in 16 adult patients with allergy to Hazelnut, Walnut, Lettuce, Peach, Cherry and London plane tree pollen (16).
In a study of individuals presenting for the first time to any of the 6 allergy clinics in Spain with respiratory and/or cutaneous symptoms, among 1,734 individuals, the prevalence of sensitisation to Tomato was found to be 6.52% (113 patients). Of these Tomato-sensitised subjects, only 16% reported symptoms with Tomato, but 97% were sensitised to inhalant aeroallergens, including 84% to pollens (mainly Artemisia vulgaris and Platanus hybrida), with differences in the average profiles between Northern and Southern clinics. Most of the sensitised subjects were asymptomatic, but some patients reported symptoms although they had no skin test sensitivity (17).
A polygalacturonase was isolated from Lily pollen and displayed significant similarity to allergens in other plants, including Phl p 13 of Timothy grass and Pla a 2 of London plane tree (18).
Cannabis sativa leaf extract has been shown to share a degree of cross-reactivity with Tomato, Peach and Mugwort, and a lesser degree with London plane tree pollen (19).
Plane trees are an important source of airborne allergens in many cities of the United States and Western Europe (7). and exposure to London plane tree pollen can induce asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis (20-22); systemic reactions have occurred during immunotherapy (23).
Initially, London plane tree pollen was not thought to contribute much to the prevalence of atopic sensitisation, even though the pollen had been detected in the atmosphere, but recent studies have shown that pollen from this tree is an important cause of pollinosis.
In a study in Madrid, Spain, among 187 patients with a history of rhinitis and/or seasonal asthma, a 56% prevalence of positive skin-prick tests to Platanus was found, surpassed (not necessarily in this order) only by the effects of pollen from the grasses Dactylis glomerata (Cocksfoot), Trisetum paniceum (Common wild oats) (92%), and Olive tree (63%). Aerobiological sampling of the pollen content of the air in Madrid revealed that 14.9% of this content consisted of Platanus. Specific IgE confirmed sensitisation to this allergen (24).
In an earlier study in Madrid, among 47 patients with spring-summer pollinosis symptoms who were seen at an allergy clinic, skin-prick tests to Platanus were positive in 33 of the 39 patients first seen with seasonal symptoms during Platanus pollen season, and only in 3 of the 8 patients without symptoms during Platanus exposure. Twenty-two of the 33 Platanus-positive skin-test patients also had a positive ELISA result. The average 24-hour rhinitis symptom scores of the 39 patients first seen with seasonal symptoms from March through April showed significant correlation with Platanus pollen counts. (3) The authors concluded that Platanus pollen was an important cause of pollinosis in this area.
High levels or this aeroallergen and its clinical importance have also been demonstrated in studies from Cape Town, South Africa, where Platanus pollen is abundant in September (25), from Zurich, Switzerland (26), from Balikesir, Turkey (27), and from Salamanca, Spain (28). Pollen from this tree was also demonstrated to be an important aeroallergen in Montpellier, in southern France, where the highest prevalence of allergy was to grass pollen, followed by Plantain, Parietaria, Oleaceae, London plane and Cupressaceae pollen; the prevalence of sensitisation among the entire group ranged from 13% to 36% of pollen-allergic patients (29).
In Plasencia, Spain, where Castanea sativa (European chestnut tree) is a major source of pollen, it was nevertheless demonstrated that of 210 patients with pollen allergy, 36.6 % were sensitised to Platanus acerifolia (30). In a study of 371 skin prick-tested paediatric patients in Cova da Beira, an interior region of Portugal, 11.4% were found positive for Platanus acerifolia (31). In Madrid, Spain, the second-most-abundant airborne aeroallergen, after pollen of Quercus spp., was pollen from Platanus spp. In skin prick tests, the prevalence of positive reactions to London plane tree pollen was 52% (32). London plane tree pollen was also reported to be an important aeroallergen in Seville, Spain (33).
Importantly, London plane-allergic individuals may be concomitantly allergic to foods (11,15). (See Potential cross-reactivity above.)
Allergic contact dermatitis from contact with the London plane tree has also been reported (34).
Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, firstname.lastname@example.org
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