Latin name: Prunus avium
Source material: Frozen berry
Common names: Cherry, Sweet cherry, Wild cherry
A food, which may result in allergy symptoms in sensitised individuals.
The wild cherry or sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is a species of cherry native to Europe, north-west Africa, and western Asia.
Botanically, cherries are more closely related to plums than to peaches or apricots. Europe leads the world in production. The cultivated varieties have large red, purple or yellow berries.
The deciduous tree grows 4.5-10 m tall, with a trunk up to 1.5 m in diameter. The bark is smooth and purplish-brown with prominent horizontal grey-brown lenticels showing on young trees, becoming thick, dark, blackish-brown and fissured on old trees. The leaves are alternate, simple ovoid-acute, 7-14 cm long and 4-7 cm broad, glabrous matt or sub-shiny green above, variably finely downy beneath, and with a serrated margin and an acuminate tip; the green or reddish petiole is 2-3.5 cm long and bears 2 to 5 small red glands. The tip of each serrated edge of a leaf also bears small red glands. (1)
In autumn, the leaves turn orange, pink or red before falling. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as the new leaves, borne in corymbs of 2 to 6 together, each flower pendent on a 2-5 cm peduncle, 2.5-3.5 cm diameter, and with 5 pure white petals, yellowish stamens, and a superior ovary; they are hermaphroditic, and pollinated by bees. The fruit is a drupe 1-2 cm in diameter (larger in some cultivated selections), bright red to dark purple when mature in midsummer, edible, variably sweet to somewhat astringent and bitter when eaten fresh; it contains a single hard-shelled stone 8-12 mm long, 7-10 mm wide and 6-8 mm thick, grooved along the flattest edge; the seed (kernel) inside the stone is 6-8 mm long. (1)
Sweet cherry and its ancestor, the wild cherry, supply most of the world's commercial cultivars of edible cherry (the other source being the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus, the varieties of which are used mainly for cooking). A great many various cherry cultivars are now grown worldwide, wherever the climate is suitable. The species has also escaped from cultivation and become naturalised in some temperate regions. (1)
The following allergens have been characterised:
Pru av 1, an 18 kDa protein, a Bet v 1-homologue, a major allergen. (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17)
Pru av 2, a 23.3 to 29 kDa thaumatin-like protein. (2, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22)
Pru av 3, a 15 kDa lipid transfer protein. (2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27)
Pru av 4, a 15 kDa profilin. (2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 28, 29, 30)
A beta-glucosidase (68 kDa) was isolated from ripe fruits of sweet cherry. (31) (Its allergenicity was not assessed, but beta-glucosidase is an allergen in other fruit.)
Pru av 1 was previously known as Pru a 1.
A heterogeneous sensitisation to cherry allergens occurs, and is influenced by geographic location. For example, Pru av 3, an LTP, has been identified as a major allergen in Mediterranean patients allergic to cherry, but was shown to be of minor clinical relevance in central and northern Europe, where birch trees are abundant. Patients with birch pollen-related cherry allergy are predominantly sensitised to the Bet v 1-homologous allergen Pru av 1. (7, 13, 16) Nonspecific LTPs are predominantly Rosaceae fruit allergens in the Mediterranean population, and sensitisation to these allergens occurs independently from allergy to birch pollen. Whereas symptoms to pollen-related food allergens in fruits typically cause only oral allergy syndrome (OAS), symptoms (in addition to OAS) of LTP-sensitised subjects are frequently systemic, including anaphylactic reactions. IgE reactivity to pollen-related food allergens is a consequence of primary sensitisation to inhalant allergens (commonly birch pollen), and of IgE cross-reactivity with homologous food allergens. In contrast, LTPs are probably capable of sensitising by the ingestion route. (7)
In a study of 101 cherry-allergic German and Italian patients, IgE prevalence was as follows: LTP (Pru av 3), 3 of 101 (3%); rPru av 1, 97 of 101 (96.0%); rPru av 4, 16 of 101 (16.2%); and cherry extract, 98 of 101 (97%). All 7 Italian patients had IgE against the cherry LTP. (13) In a study evaluating a panel of recombinant allergens for use in component-resolved in vivo diagnosis, with cherry as a model food, 79 subjects were included in the study: 24 Swiss patients (group 1) with a positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge result to cherry; 23 Swiss patients with birch pollen allergy but without cherry allergy (group 2); 23 non-atopic Swiss subjects (group 3); and 9 Spanish patients with a history of cherry allergy (group 4). SPT responses with rPru av 1, rPru av 4, and rPru av 3 were positive in 92%, 17%, and 4%, respectively, of the patients in group 1; in 74%, 30%, and 0% of the patients in group 2; in 0%, 22%, and 89% of the patients in group 4; and negative for all non-atopic subjects (group 3). (11)
In a study of 186 cherry-allergic subjects from central Europe and Spain, serum IgE was analysed with serum IgE tests carrying rPru av 1, 3 and 4, combined and separately, and cherry extract. Consistent with previous reports, major geographic differences in sensitisation patterns and prevalence of systemic reactions were found. A significantly higher rate of systemic reactions was found in Spanish patients sensitised to Pru av 3, whereas German patients sensitised to LTP had only oral allergy syndrome. (4)
Cherry Pru av 2, a thaumatin-like protein, is the most abundant soluble protein in ripe cherry; accumulation of this protein begins at the onset of ripening as the fruit turns from yellow to red. (22) Pru av 2 was recognised by the majority of cherry-allergic patients in a study, binding IgE of 50% of cherry-allergic patients. (18)
Cherry LTP Pru av 3 has been shown to have a high degree of resistance to digestion, and immunologically active Pru av 3 was detectable after 2 hours of digestion by pepsin, whereas IgE reactivity of Pru av 1 and Pru av 4 was eliminated within less than 60 minutes. Pru av 3 is also heat-stable. (7) There were no marked differences between the LTP of 6 cherry cultivars. LTP is found mainly in the peel, and chemical peeling has been shown to successfully remove Pru av 3. (23)
Extensive cross-reactivity among the different individual species of the family could be expected. (26, 32)
Like other Prunus fruits, cherry contains a variety of allergenic proteins, including 2 birch tree pollen-homologous allergens, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 (a profilin). Both Bet v 1 homologues and profilin may result in mild symptoms such as oral allergy syndrome, although sensitisation to profilin is commonly associated with more generalised symptoms, in particular urticaria and angioedema. (33) Lipid transfer protein may also be responsible for OAS in patients without pollen allergy, (23, 26) though adverse reactions are typically more severe. This is exemplified by a study of 14 subjects with Pru av 3 (LTP) sensitisation experiencing OAS, which was associated in some of the patients with gastrointestinal, respiratory or cardio-vascular symptoms. (7)
The relationship between pollen allergy and OAS to fruits and vegetables was evaluated in Sapporo, Japan, and it was found that out of 843 patients with birch-pollen allergy, 378 (37%) had episodes of OAS. The most frequent foods causing OAS were apple, peach and cherry, followed by kiwi, pear, plum and melon. (34) In an earlier study of 87 patients, in 61% of patients with birch allergy, apple (97%) was the most prevalent allergen resulting in OAS, followed by peach (67%), cherry (58%), pear (40%), plum (40%) and melon (33%). (35) In a European study, hazelnut (53%) was shown to be the most common food allergen associated with OAS in 380 birch pollen-allergic patients. Approximately 33% of these patients were also hypersensitive to almond and cherry, as reported on questionnaires. (36)
Pru av 1, a Bet v 1-homologous panallergen, has a 67% homology to Bet v 1. (15, 16) Cloned cherry allergen has a 59.1% identity to Bet v 1. (16) Some authors have described Pru av 1 as nearly identical with Bet v 1. (9, 17) This cross-reactive panallergen is found in (among other substances) cherry (Pru a 1), apple (Mal d 1), pear (Pyr c 1), celery (Api g 1), peach (Pru p 1) and carrot (Dau c 1). (15, 33, 37) Bet v 1 homologues mainly cause mild symptoms such as oral allergy syndrome (OAS). (33) Other Bet v 1 homologues are found in soya bean (Gly m 4) and peanut (Ara h 8). (38)
Pru av 2, a thaumatin-like protein (TLP), is a panallergen found in cherry and other foods. The amino acid sequence of cherry TLP has been shown to be highly homologous to grape and apple thaumatins. (39)
Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP), is found in cherry. Pru av 3 shows high amino acid sequence identity with LTPs from peach (Pru p 3, 88%), apricot (Pru ar 3, 86%), and maize (Zea m 14, 59%), and no IgE cross-reactivity with birch pollen. (13) LTPs have also been shown to be present in walnut and peanut, (40) mugwort and chestnut, (41, 42) Vit v 1 from grape, (43) Cor a 8 from hazelnut, (44) Mal d 3 from apple, (45, 46) and Lac s 1 from lettuce. (47) Vit v 1, the LTP from grape, was shown to completely inhibit cherry LTP Pru av 3. (25) Hazelnut LTP has an amino acid identity of 59% with cherry LTP. (24) LTPs are also found in blueberry, raspberry, hazelnut, barley, asparagus, and carrot. (48) However, there is no firm correlation between sequence identity and clinical cross-reactivity, and therefore the degree of cross-reactivity resulting from LTPs varies among foods containing this panallergen. (47, 49) Lipid transfer proteins of Rosaceae fruits, including cherry, represent major allergens for atopic Mediterranean populations. (50)
Pru av 4, a profilin and panallergen, is recognised in about 20% of pollen-allergic patients from central Europe. However, sensitisation depends on the geographic area: in Swedish and Finnish patients, approximately 5-7% are sensitised to birch profilin, compared to 20-38% in central and southern Europe. (51) Approximately 20% of Spanish patients allergic to Bermuda grass were found to be sensitised to profilin, and about 42% of celery-allergic individuals to celery-profilin. (51) Sensitisation to profilin may result in cross-reactivity between cherry and other profilin-containing foods; although the cross-reactivity is quite variable, especially as profilin is heat-labile. Other foods containing profilin include tomato (Lyc e 1), celery (Api g 4), pineapple (Ana c 1), banana (Mus xp 1), carrot (Dau c 4) and pear (Pyr c 4). (28, 29, 52)
Pear (Pyr c 4) and Pru av 4 from cherry showed high amino acid sequence identity with birch pollen profilin, Bet v 2 (76-83%). Forty-three of 49 patients (88%) preselected for an IgE reactivity with Bet v 2 showed specific IgE antibodies to recombinant pear profilin, 92% to recombinant cherry profilin, and 80% to celery profilin. Profilins of peanut, cherry, pear, celery and birch have been shown to have marked differences in their IgE binding capacity. (30) IgE binding profiles indicate the presence of epitope differences among the related profilins, suggesting that cross-reactivity among related profilins may explain pollen-related allergy to food in a minority of patients. (28)
In a study of 61 patients with a documented history of IgE-mediated reactions to grapes or their products (wine, juice, and wine vinegar), 81.9% were co-sensitised to apple, 70.5% to peach, 47.5% to cherry, 32.8% to strawberry, 49.2% to peanut, 42.6% to walnut, 31.1% to hazelnut, 26.2% to almond, and 29.5% to pistachio. The high prevalence of concomitant reactivity to other fruits elicits an interest in the clinical relevance of these findings for the grape-allergic population. (53) In 11 Greek patients studied for IgE-mediated reactions to grapes, wine, or other grape products, other foods that induced anaphylaxis were apple (54.5%), cherry (18.6%), peach (18.6%), and banana (9.3%). Panallergens were not tested for. (54)
Cherry may commonly induce symptoms of food allergy in sensitised individuals. Adverse reactions may range from mild oral allergy syndrome (OAS) to nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, cough, dysphagia, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, angioedema, urticaria, laryngeal oedema, and severe anaphylaxis following ingestion of cherry. (4, 7, 26, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63)
As mentioned above, symptoms of cherry allergy are dependent on geographic location and predominant sensitization, whether to Pru av 1 or Pru av 3. Severe reactions, including anaphylaxis, are often associated with sensitisation to Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein, but sensitisation to this allergen may manifest as OAS alone, or as OAS associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory or cardiovascular symptoms. (7) This is exemplified by a study of 186 cherry-allergic subjects from central Europe and Spain, where the most frequently reported symptoms to cherry were OAS and dyspnoea. OAS was found in 68% and dyspnoea in 13% of the entire cherry-allergic group. None of the other recorded symptoms (angioedema, urticaria, rhinitis, flush, conjunctivitis, larynx oedema, cough, dysphagia, nausea, emesis, diarrhoea and cardiovascular reactions) were reported in more than 5% of the subjects. However, the subjects from central Europe and Spain showed marked differences in the frequency of specific symptoms. Ninety-three per cent (113/121) of the central European study population reported OAS and other mild symptoms, with 1.7% (2/121) having urticaria and 0.8% (1/121) having angioedema, after ingestion of cherry. The same symptoms were reported by 64%, 27% and 27% of the Spanish subjects, respectively. Further, episodes of anaphylactic reactions upon consumption of cherry were reported by 3 of the Spanish but none of the central European subjects. An unusual observation was that 1 Swiss subject – who displayed symptoms upon cherry ingestion that were unusually severe (urticaria, severe angioedema, cough, dyspnoea and gastrointestinal symptoms) compared with other central European subjects – in fact originated from the Mediterranean area, and allergy to cherry first occurred when the subject had already been living in Switzerland for a couple of years. (4)
Allergy to Rosaceae fruits in patients without a related pollen allergy is also a severe clinical entity. Profilin- and Bet v 1-related structures are not involved. (64)
A cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based survey was conducted in Toulouse (France) schools to determine the prevalence of food allergies among schoolchildren. Of 2 716 questionnaires returned, 192 questionnaires reported a food allergy. One reported allergy to cherry. (65)
A study was conducted at 17 clinics in 15 European cities to evaluate the differences between some Northern countries regarding what foods, according to the patients, elicit hypersensitivity symptoms. It was reported (the informants being food-allergic individuals responding to questionnaires concerning 86 different foods) that the foods eliciting symptoms in Russia, Estonia, and Lithuania were citrus fruits, chocolate, honey, apple, hazelnut, strawberry, fish, tomato, egg, and milk, which differed from the situation in Sweden and Denmark, where birch pollen-related foods such as nuts, apple, pear, kiwi, stone fruits and carrot were the most common reported causes. The most common symptoms reported were oral allergy syndrome and urticaria. Birch pollen-related foods dominate in Scandinavia, whereas some mugwort-related foods were of more importance in Russia and the Baltic states. Among 1 139 individuals, cherry was the 23 (rd)-most-reported culprit food, resulting in adverse effects in 19%. (66)
A 24-year-old with allergy to grape also reported experiencing oropharyngeal pruritus after eating cherry. Skin-prick tests with commercial food extracts were positive for cherry and plum. (57)
Anaphylaxis (vomiting, dyspnoea, itching, and generalised oedema) following ingestion of cherry has been described. This patient had previously tolerated other fruit from the same family (apple, plum and peach). (67)
A 4-year-old child was described with allergy to multiple foods. Symptoms of urticaria and asthma were clearly associated with ingestion of hen’s egg at the age of 2. He subsequently developed rhinitis, angioedema, headache, and gastroenteritis, symptoms variously associated and started between a few minutes and 2 hours after the ingestion of numerous foods. Skin-prick tests with fresh food were positive for fig, asparagus, cherry, walnut, medlar, orange, chicory, strawberry, fish, peanut, peach and egg. Serum-specific IgE was detected for hen’s egg, fish, peanuts, walnut, fig, orange, strawberry, peach and cherry. DBPCFC was positive to various degrees for all the skin-prick test-positive foods. (68, 69)
Respiratory allergy to pollen from cherry tree has been reported. (70)
Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, email@example.com
- Wikipedia contributors, "Wild Cherry", Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prunus_avium. Accessed September 2012.
- International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature: IUIS official list http://www.allergen.org. Accessed September 2012.
- Marañon MJ, Banik U, Rouhani R, Poladian M, Drummond A, Lopez M, Jaggi K, Davoudzadeh D, Scala E, Zaffiro A, Mari A, Hovanec-Burns D. Response to Recombinant PR-10 Allergens rMal d 1 and rPru av 1 in a Specific IgE Assay in Patients with Allergy to Rosaceae. (Poster) 2nd Int Symp Molecular Allergol, Rome, Italy 2007; 22-24 April.
- Reuter A, Lidholm J, Andersson K, Ostling J, Lundberg M, Scheurer S, Enrique E, Cistero-Bahima A, Miguel-Moncin MS, Ballmer-Weber BK, Vieths S. A critical assessment of allergen component-based in vitro diagnosis in cherry allergy across Europe. Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36(6):815-23.
- Reuter A, Fortunato D, Garoffo LP, Napolitano L, Scheurer S, Giuffrida MG, Vieths S, Conti A. Novel isoforms of Pru av 1 with diverging immunoglobulin E binding properties identified by a synergistic combination of molecular biology and proteomics. Proteomics 2005;5(1):282-9.
- Wiche R, Gubesch M, Konig H, Fotisch K, Hoffmann A, Wangorsch A, Scheurer S, Vieths S. Molecular basis of pollen-related food allergy: identification of a second cross-reactive IgE epitope on Pru av 1, the major cherry (Prunus avium) allergen. Biochem J 2005;385 (Pt 1):319-27.
- Scheurer S, Lauer I, Foetisch K, Moncin MS, Retzek M, Hartz C, Enrique E, Lidholm J, Cistero-Bahima A, Vieths S. Strong allergenicity of Pru av 3, the lipid transfer protein from cherry, is related to high stability against thermal processing and digestion. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114(4):900-7.
- Gruber P, Vieths S, Wangorsch A, Nerkamp J, Hofmann T. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium). J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(12):4002-7.
- Neudecker P, Lehmann K, Nerkamp J, Haase T, Wangorsch A, Fotisch K, Hoffmann S, Rosch P, Vieths S, Scheurer S. Mutational epitope analysis of Pru av 1 and Api g 1, the major allergens of cherry (Prunus avium) and celery (Apium graveolens): correlating IgE reactivity with three-dimensional structure. Biochem J 2003;376(Pt 1):97-107.
- Wiche R, Schicktanz S, Scheurer S, Conti A, Fo¨tisch K, Hoffmann A, Vieths S. IgE epitope analysis of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1. [Poster: XXI Congress of EAACI] Allergy 2002;57 Suppl 73:79-84.[Fo¨tisch?]
- Ballmer-Weber BK, Scheurer S, Fritsche P, Enrique E, Cistero-Bahima A, Haase T, Wuthrich B. Component-resolved diagnosis with recombinant allergens in patients with cherry allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(1):167-73.
- Neudecker P, Schweimer K, Nerkamp J, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Sticht H, Rosch P. Allergic cross-reactivity made visible: solution structure of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1. J Biol Chem 2001;276(25):22756-63.[confirm large page no?]
- Scheurer S, Pastorello EA, Wangorsch A, Kastner M, Haustein D, Vieths S. Recombinant allergens Pru av 1 and Pru av 4 and a newly identified lipid transfer protein in the in vitro diagnosis of cherry allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(4):724-31.
- Neudecker P, Schweimer K, Nerkamp J, Boehm M, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Sticht H, Rösch P. Sequence-specific 1H, 13C and 15N resonance assignments of the major cherry allergen Pru a 1. J Biomol NMR 2000;18(1):71-2.
- Scheurer S, Son DY, Boehm M, Karamloo F, Franke S, Hoffmann A, Haustein D, Vieths S. Cross-reactivity and epitope analysis of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen. Molecular Immunol 1999;36(3):155-67.
- Scheurer S, Metzner K, Haustein D, Vieths S. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of Pru a 1, the major cherry allergen. Mol Immunol 1997;34(8-9):619-29.
- Schweimer K, Sticht H, Nerkamp J, Boehm M, Breitenbach M, Vieths S, Rosch P. NMR spectroscopy reveals common structural feature of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the cherry allergen Pru av 1. Appl Magn Reson 1999;17:449-64.
- Fuchs HC, Bohle B, Dall'antonia Y, Radauer C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Mari A, Scheiner O, Keller W, Breiteneder H. Natural and recombinant molecules of the cherry allergen Pru av 2 show diverse structural and B cell characteristics but similar T cell reactivity. Clin Exp Allergy 2006;36(3):359-68.
- Dall'Antonia Y, Pavkov T, Fuchs H, Breiteneder H, Keller W. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the plant food allergen Pru av 2. Acta Crystallograph Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2005;61(Pt 2):186-8.
- Menu-Bouaouiche L, Vriet C, Peumans WJ, Barre A, Van Damme EJ, Rouge P. A molecular basis for the endo-beta 1,3-glucanase activity of the thaumatin-like proteins from edible fruits. Biochimie 2003;85(1-2):123-31.
- Inschlag C, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, O'Riordain G, Ahorn H, Ebner C, Scheiner O, Breiteneder H. Biochemical characterization of Pru a 2, a 23-kD thaumatin-like protein representing a potential major allergen in cherry (Prunus avium). Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;116:22-8.
- Fils-Lycaon BR, Wiersma PA, Eastwell KC, Sautiere P. A cherry protein and its gene, abundantly expressed in ripening fruit, have been identified as thaumatin-like. Plant Physiol 1996;111(1):269-73.
- Primavesi L, Brenna OV, Pompei C, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Pastorello EA. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54(26):9930-5.
- Schocker F, Lüttkopf D, Scheurer S, Petersen A, Vieths S, Becker WM. Cloning and sequencing of the lipid transfer protein from hazelnut (corylus avellana) [Poster] 8th International Symposium on Problems of Food Allergy, Venice. 11-13 March 2001.
- Schad SG, Trcka J, Vieths S, Scheurer S, Conti A, Brocker EB, Trautmann A. Wine anaphylaxis in a German patient: IgE-mediated allergy against a lipid transfer protein of grapes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;136(2):159-64.
- Pastorello EA, Ortolani C, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ispano M, Borga A, Bengtsson A, Incorvaia C, Berti C, Zanussi C. Allergenic cross-reactivity among peach, apricot, plum, and cherry in patients with oral allergy syndrome: an in vivo and in vitro study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94(4):699-707.
- Pastorello EA, Incorvaia C, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Conti A, Vigano G, Rivolta F, Ispano M, Rotondo F, Ortolani C. New allergens in fruits and vegetables. Allergy 1998;53(46 Suppl):48-51.
- Scheurer S, Wangorsch A, Nerkamp J, Skov PS, Ballmer-Weber B, Wuthrich B, Haustein D, Vieths S. Cross-reactivity within the profilin panallergen family investigated by comparison of recombinant profilins from pear (Pyr c 4), cherry (Pru av 4) and celery (Api g 4) with birch pollen profilin Bet v 2. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001;756(1-2):315-25.
- van Ree R, Voitenko V, van Leeuwen WA, Aalberse RC. Profilin is a cross-reactive allergen in pollen and vegetable foods. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1992;98(2):97-104.
- Kleber-Janke T, Crameri R, Scheurer S, Vieths S, Becker WM. Patient-tailored cloning of allergens by phage display: peanut (Arachis hypogaea) profilin, a food allergen derived from a rare mRNA. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 2001;756(1-2):295-305.
- Gerardi C, Blando F, Santino A, Zacheo G. Purification and characterisation of a beta-glucosidase abundantly expressed in ripe sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit. Plant Sci 2001;160(5):795-805.
- Yman L. Botanical relations and immunological cross-reactions in pollen allergy. 2nd ed. Pharmacia Diagnostics AB. Uppsala, Sweden. 1982: ISBN 91-970475-09.
- Helbling A Important cross-reactive allergens. [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1997;127(10):382-9.
- Yamamoto T, Asakura K, Shirasaki H, Himi T, Ogasawara H, Narita S, Kataura A Relationship between pollen allergy and oral allergy syndrome. Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2005;108(10):971-9.
- Gotoda H, Maguchi S, Kawahara H, Terayama Y, Fukuda S. Springtime pollinosis and oral allergy syndrome in Sapporo. Auris Nasus Larynx 2001;28 Suppl:S49-52.
- Eriksson NR, Formgren H, Svenonius E. Food hypersensitivity in patients with pollen allergy. Allergy 1982;37:437-43.
- Rodriguez J, Crespo JF, Lopez-Rubio A, De La Cruz-Bertolo J, Ferrando-Vivas P, Vives R, Daroca P. Clinical cross-reactivity among foods of the Rosaceae family. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;106(1 Pt 1):183-9.
- Mittag D, Batori V, Neudecker P, Wiche R, Friis EP, Ballmer-Weber BK, Vieths S, Roggen EL. A novel approach for investigation of specific and cross-reactive IgE epitopes on Bet v 1 and homologous food allergens in individual patients. Mol Immunol 2006;43(3):268-78.
- Sbornik M, Rakoski J, Mempel M, Ollert M, Ring J. IgE-mediated type-I-allergy against red wine and grapes. Allergy 2007;62(11):1339-40.
- Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Amato S, Caldironi G, Barocci F, Van Ree R. Immunological cross-reactivity between lipid transfer proteins from botanically unrelated plant-derived foods: a clinical study. Allergy 2002;57(10):900-6.
- Pastorello EA, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Rivolta F, Conti A, Ispano M, Fortunato D, Bengtsson A, Bianchi M. Hypersensitivity to mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in patients with peach allergy is due to a common lipid transfer protein allergen and is often without clinical expression. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(2 Pt 1):310-7.
- Diaz-Perales A, Lombardero M, Sanchez-Monge R, Garcia-Selles FJ, Pernas M, Fernandez-Rivas M, Barber D, Salcedo G. Lipid-transfer proteins as potential plant panallergens: cross-reactivity among proteins of Artemisia pollen, Castanea nut and Rosaceae fruits, with different IgE-binding capacities. Clin Exp Allergy 2000;30(10):1403-10.
- Pastorello EA, Farioli L, Pravettoni V, Ortolani C, Fortunato D, Giuffrida MG, Perono Garoffo L, Calamari AM, Brenna O, Conti A. Identification of grape and wine allergens as an endochitinase 4, a lipid-transfer protein, and a thaumatin. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(2):350-9.
- Pastorello EA, Vieths S, Pravettoni V, Farioli L, Trambaioli C, Fortunato D, Lüttkopf D, Calamari M, Ansaloni R, Scibilia J, Ballmer-Weber BK, Poulsen LK, Wütrich B, Hansen KS, Robino AM, Ortolani C, Conti A. Identification of hazelnut major allergens in sensitive patients with positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge results. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109(3):563-70.
- Sanchez-Monge R, Lombardero M, Garcia-Selles FJ, Barber D, Salcedo G. Lipid-transfer proteins are relevant allergens in fruit allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103(3 Pt 1):514-9.
- Zuidmeer L, van Leeuwen WA, Kleine B, Cornelissen J, Bulder I, Rafalska I, Tellez BN, Akkerdaas JH, Asero R, Fernandez RM, Gonzalez ME, van Ree RR. Lipid transfer proteins from fruit: cloning, expression and quantification. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2005;137(4):273-81.
- San Miguel-Moncin M, Krail M, Scheurer S, Enrique E, Alonso R, Conti A, Cistero-Bahima A, Vieths S. Lettuce anaphylaxis: identification of a lipid transfer protein as the major allergen. Allergy 2003;58(6):511-7.
- Marzban G, Mansfeld A, Hemmer W, Stoyanova E, Katinger H, da Câmara Machado ML. Fruit cross-reactive allergens: a theme of uprising interest for consumers' health. Biofactors 2005;23(4):235-41.
- Hartz C, San Miguel-Moncin MM, Cistero-Bahima A, Fotisch K, Metzner KJ, Fortunato D, Lidholm J, Vieths S, Scheurer S. Molecular characterisation of Lac s 1, the major allergen from lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Mol Immunol 2007;44(11):2820-30.
- Gao ZS, van de Weg WE, Schaart JG, van der Meer I, Kodde L, Laimer M, Breiteneder H, Hoffmann-Sommergruber K, Gilissen LJ. Linkage map positions and allelic diversity of two Mal d 3 (non-specific lipid transfer protein) genes in the cultivated apple (Malus domestica). Theor Appl Genet 2005;110(3):479-91.
- Martinez A, Asturias JA, Monteseirin J, Moreno V, Garcia-Cubillana A, Hernandez M, de la Calle A, Sanchez-Hernandez C, Perez-Formoso JL, Conde J. The allergenic relevance of profilin (Ole e 2) from Olea europaea pollen. Allergy 2002;57 Suppl 71:17-23.
- Westphal S, Kempf W, Foetisch K, Retzek M, Vieths S, Scheurer S. Tomato profilin Lyc e 1: IgE cross-reactivity and allergenic potency. Allergy 2004;59(5):526-32.
- Kalogeromitros DC, Makris MP, Gregoriou SG, Katoulis AC, Straurianeas NG. Sensitization to other foods in subjects with reported allergy to grapes. Allergy Asthma Proc 2006;27(1):68-71.
- Kalogeromitros DC, Makris MP, Gregoriou SG, Mousatou VG, Lyris NG, Tarassi KE, Papasteriades CA. Grape anaphylaxis: a study of 11 adult onset cases. Allergy Asthma Proc 2005;26(1):53-8.
- Mari A, Ballmer-Weber BK, Vieths S. The oral allergy syndrome: improved diagnostic and treatment methods. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;5(3):267-73.
- Asero R. Detection and clinical characterization of patients with oral allergy syndrome caused by stable allergens in Rosaceae and nuts. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;83(5):377-83.
- Giannoccaro F, Munno G, Riva G, Pugliese S, Paradiso MT, Ferrannini A. Oral allergy syndrome to grapes. Allergy 1998;53(4):451-2.
- Pumphrey RS, Stanworth SJ. The clinical spectrum of anaphylaxis in north-west England. Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26:1364-70.
- Hernandez J, Garcia Selles FJ, Pagan JA, Negro JM. Immediate hypersensitivity to fruits and vegetables and pollenosis. [Spanish] Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1985;13(3):197-211.
- Eriksson NE. Food sensitivity reported by patients with asthma and hay fever. Allergy 1978;33:189-96.
- Zuidmeer L, Goldhahn K, Rona RJ, Gislason D, Madsen C, Summers C, Sodergren E, Dahlstrom J, Lindner T, Sigurdardottir ST, McBride D, Keil T. The prevalence of plant food allergies: a systematic review. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;121(5):1210-8.
- Yamamoto T, Asakura K, Shirasaki H, Himi T. Clustering of food causing oral allergy syndrome in patients with birch pollen allergy. [Japanese] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 2008;111(8):588-93.
- Ortolani C, Ispano M, Pastorello E, Bigi A, Ansaloni R. The oral allergy syndrome. Ann Allergy 1988;61(6 Pt 2):47-52.
- Fernandez Rivas M, van Ree R, Cuevas M. Allergy to Rosaceae fruits without related pollinosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(6 Pt 1):728-33.
- Rance F, Grandmottet X, Grandjean H. Prevalence and main characteristics of schoolchildren diagnosed with food allergies in France. Clin Exp Allergy 2005;35(2):167-72.
- Eriksson NE, Moller C, Werner S, Magnusson J, Bengtsson U, Zolubas M. Self-reported food hypersensitivity in Sweden, Denmark, Estonia, Lithuania, and Russia. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2004;14(1):70-9.
- Escribano MM, Munoz FJ, Velazouez E, Gonzalez J, Conde J. Anaphylactic reaction caused by cherry ingestion. Allergy 1996;51(10):756-7.
- Pajno GB, Passalacqua G, La Grutta S, Vita D, Feliciotto R, Parmiani S, Barberio G. True multifood allergy in a 4-year-old child: a case study. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2002;30(6):338-41.
- Pajno GB, Passalacqua G, La Grutta S, Vita D, Feliciotto R, Barberio G. True multifood allergy in a 4-year-old child: a case study. [Poster: XXI Congress of EAACI] Allergy 2002;57 Suppl 73:85-105.
- Iwao H. Studies on cherry pollinosis--clinical and immunological studies on cherry pollinosis first reported [Japanese] Nippon Jibiinkoka Gakkai Kaiho 1986;89(9):1217-30.