rOle e 1 Olive

Further Reading

Olive t9

  • Allergen search puff

    SEARCH FOR ALLERGENS

    Search ImmunoCAP allergens and allergen components. Note that all information is in English.

Code: t224
Latin name: Olea europaea
Source material: rOle e 1 is a CCD-free recombinant protein
Family: Oleaceae
Common names: Group 1 Oleaceae

Olive allergen components

Available ImmunoCAP®:  

Olea europaea, the Olive tree, is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in the Mediterranean area (1) and also in other parts of the world where this tree is now grown. Olive tree is a member of the Oleaceae family, which has 4 important genera: Olive (Olea), Ash (Fraxinus), Lilac (Syringa), and Privet (Ligustrum).

Olive tree probably originated in Asia Minor, spread to the Mediterranean region, and was then introduced into North America (especially California and Arizona), South America (Chile), Australia and South Africa. Although in North America Olive trees are found only in the Southwest, Ash and Privet are widespread, a circumstance of relevance to cross-reactivity (2). Countries and regions have distinct varieties of Olive. In Italy, individual varieties of Olea europaea, which differ between the northern and southern parts of the country, may induce different IgE-mediated reactions (3).

The Olive tree is an evergreen growing to 10 m, with a broad, round crown and a thick and knotty trunk. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs). The plant is self-fertilising. Pollination is by insects but also by wind when pollen is in abundance. The pollination period varies: it typically occurs in the spring, but in Europe may start as early as January, depending on the region (1). In southern Italy it lasts from early April to late June, and as one moves north, lasts until July (3).

Olive pollens can induce asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis in sensitised individuals (4-11).

The frequency of sensitisation to Olive tree pollen varies in the Mediterranean region from ~10% of atopic individuals in Sicily to ~40% in Greece (1,12). In Greece, one study found that more than 37% of atopic individuals were sensitised to Oleaceae (13). Fifteen percent of atopic patients in southern France were found to be skin-prick positive to Oleaceae (14). In Italy, atopic sensitisation varied from 12% in Sicily to 30% in Apulia (15-19). In Naples, of 4,142 patients examined consecutively over a two-year period, 13.5% of adults and 8.5% of children of all skin prick test-positive patients were positive to Olea pollen allergens on skin-prick testing (20). Less than 1.4% of children and 2.3% of adults were found to be monosensitised to Olive pollen (20). In another study on 507 asthmatic atopic children in the Chieti-Pescara area of Italy, skin-prick tests found that 21% were sensitised to Olive tree pollen (21).

Sensitisation to Olive pollen has also been reported in Israel (22-23). Positive skin reactions to Olive pollen, among atopic patients of the Jewish population, was shown to be high where Olive trees are abundant (66%), and lower (29%) where the trees are scarce (24-25). In Spain, a study demonstrated that the frequency of sensitisation could vary greatly within the same country (26-27). The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere showed pollen from the Olive tree to be one of the most common pollen grains (28).

Olive tree pollen has also been shown to result in sensitisation in Japan as well as in Israel; in the Japan 16% of pollinosis patients were positive to this allergen (25,29). Skin-prick tests for sensitisation to Olive tree pollen in the southern part of Switzerland (Canton Ticino) showed a high sensitisation rate of 54% (30).

The majority of studies demonstrate a higher prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis than of asthma (1). Patients are more likely to be polysensitised than monosensitised to Olive tree pollen. Polysensitised individuals, children and adults, may have symptoms throughout the year without an apparent increase during the Olive pollination season (11,31).

The following allergens have been characterised. 

  • Ole e 1 (32-36). 
  • Ole e 2, a profilin (37). 
  • Ole e 3, a calcium-binding protein (38). 
  • Ole e 4 (39-40). 
  • Ole e 5, a superoxide dismutase (39-40). 
  • Ole e 6 (41). 
  • Ole e 7, a lipid-transfer protein (42). 
  • Ole e 8, a calcium-binding protein (41). 
  • Ole e 9, a 1,3-beta-glucanase protein (43). 
  • Ole e 10 (44).
Allergens from Olea europaea listed by IUIS*
Ole e 1 Ole e 2

  *International Union of Immunological Societies (www.allergen.org) Jan. 2008

t224 rOle e 1

Recombinant non-glycosylated protein produced in an E. coli strain strain carrying a cloned cDNA encoding Olea europaea allergen Ole e 1

Common name: Common olive group 5, Group 1 Oleaceae
Biological function: Trypsin inhibitor
Mw: 19 and 20 kDa

Allergen description

Ole e 1 (45) exhibits a high degree of polymorphism (46) and is present in Olive tree pollen in 2 main forms, glycosylated and nonglycosylated, with apparent molecular masses of 20 and 18.5 kDa, respectively (47). rOle e 1 is actually a mixture of polypeptides with different glycosylation patterns (46).

Of the many allergens isolated and characterised from Olive pollen, Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitising agent, affecting more than 70% of patients with sensitisation to Olive pollen, although other allergens, such as Ole e 4 and Ole e 7, have also been shown to be major allergens. The prevalence of many Olive pollen allergens is dependent on geographical location (41).

Not all allergens are found in every Olive tree cultivar. In a study examining the various IgE-binding proteins of the pollen extracts of the various Olive tree cultivars, 6 predominant IgE-binding bands, some of which appear in all the cultivars, were found. Ole e 1 appeared in only 8 of the cultivars, but not in the 9 others (48).

Current standard diagnostic methods utilise crude pollen extracts that contain a complex mixture of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins. Furthermore, Ole e 1 concentration has been shown to have a 25-fold variation in pollen extracts (49). Therefore, using a well-defined allergen such as rOle e 1 allows for improved diagnosis and therapy.

A high degree of cross-reactivity has been demonstrated among Olive tree (Olea europaea), Ash (Fraxinus exselsior), Privet (Ligustrum vulgare) and Phillyrea angustifolia (a bush usually confined to certain areas of the Mediterranean) (2). All are members of the Oleaceae family, although there is no total identity among these 4 pollen species (50). The major pollen allergens from Ash (Fra e1) Privet (Lig v 1) and Lilac or Syringa vulgaris (Syr v 1), another member of the Oleaceae family, are proteins homologous to Ole e 1 (4,36,51-54). Ole e 1 has been reported to be a marker allergen for the diagnosis of Olive and European ash pollen allergy (55).

Therefore, rOle e 1 may be of diagnostic benefit in particular in areas where no Olive trees exist but other Ole e 1-cross-reactive pollens are found. For example, in northern and central Europe, where there are no Olive trees, 2 commonly occurring genera of the Oleaceae family, Fraxinus and Ligustrum, are present; but these have a low frequency of allergic sensitisation compared to Olea. The importance of cross-reactivity is demonstrated by a study in Michigan, USA, where in 103 atopic subjects, cross-reactivity among Olive tree, Fraxinus, Privet and Russian olive tree pollens was demonstrated, even though the Olive tree does not grow in that area. Nineteen subjects were skin prick-positive to this allergen, confirming the effect of cross-reactivity (2).

Cross-reactivity between extracts of Oleaceae and some species of the Poaceae family has also been shown (56-57). The major allergen of Plantago lanceolata (English plantain) pollen, Pla l 1, has been shown to have significant sequence homology with the major Olive pollen allergen Ole e 1 (58).

Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, harris@zingsolutions.com

References

  1. Liccardi G, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Oleaceae pollinosis: a review. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;111(3):210-7
  2. Kernerman SM, McCullough J, Green J, Ownby DR. Evidence of cross-reactivity between olive, ash, privet, and Russian olive tree pollen allergens.
    Ann Allergy 1992;69(6):493-6
  3. Wheeler AW. Hypersensitivity to the allergens of the pollen from the olive tree (Olea europaea).
    Clin Exp Allergy 1992;22(12):1052-7
  4. Pajaron MJ, Vila L, Prieto I, Resano A, Sanz ML, Oehling AK. Cross-reactivity of Olea europaea with other Oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.
    Allergy 1997;52(8):829-35
  5. Soriano JB, Anto JM, Sunyer J, Tobias A, Kogevinas M, Almar E, et al. Risk of asthma in the general Spanish population attributable to specific immunoresponse. Spanish Group of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey.
    Int J Epidemiol 1999;28(4):728-34
  6. Cortes X, Soriano JB, Sanchez-Ramos JL, Azofra J, Almar E, Ramos J. European study of asthma. Prevalence of atopy in young adults of 5 areas in Spain. Spanish Group of European Asthma Study. [Spanish] Med Clin (Barc) 1998;111(15):573-7
  7. Ramadan F, Hamadeh F, Abdelnoor AM. Identification of allergens in a selected group of asthmatics in Lebanon.
    Eur J Epidemiol  1998 Oct;14(7):687-91
  8. Prados M, Aragon R, Carranco MI, Sanchez F, Guillen V, Becerra A. Allergic rhinitis in the region of Merida. [Spanish] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 1993;44(6):431-3
  9. De Benedetto M, Carboni M, Cuda D. Allergologic evaluation in chronic rhinitis: study of 411 cases. [Italian] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 1989;9(6):545-53
  10. Liccardi G, Russo M, Piccolo A, Lobefalo G, Salzillo A, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. The perennial pattern of clinical symptoms in children monosensitized to Olea europaea pollen allergens in comparison with subjects with Parietaria and Gramineae pollinosis. Allergy Asthma Proc 1997;18(2):99-105
  11. Liccardi G, Kordash TR, Russo M, Noschese P, Califano C, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Why are nasal and bronchial symptoms mostly perennial in patients with monosensitization to Olea europaea pollen allergens? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1996;6(6):371-7
  12. D’Amato G, Liccardi G. Pollen-related allergy in the European Mediterranean area.
    Clin Exp Allergy 1994;24(3):210-9
  13. Gioulekas D, Chatzigeorgiou G, Liogiannis S, et al. Olea europaea 3 year pollen record in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece and its sensitising significance.
    Aerobiologia 1991;7:57-61
  14. Bousquet J, Cour P, Guerin B, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. I. Pollen counts and pollinosis of Montpellier.
    Clin Allergy 1984;14(3):249-258
  15. Caiaffa MF, Macchia L, Tursi A. Il poline di Olea europaea e la sua importanza in allergologia. Giorn It Allergol Immunol Clin 1991;1:471-474
  16. Purello D’Ambrosio F, Ferlazzo B, Barrile A. Sensitisation to Olea europaea pollen in the patients with pollinosis living in the province of Messina. Int Symp Pollinosis in the Mediterranean Area. Napoli, Rocco Curto, p217
  17. Fanti A, Giosue S, Bizarri F, Pollinosi a Roma nel periodo 1984-1986. Folia Allergol Immunol Clin 1989;36:149-155
  18. Corsico R, Falagiani P, Ariano R, Berra D, Biale C, Bonifazi F, Campi P, et al. An epidemiological survey on the allergological importance of some emerging pollens in Italy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2000;10(3):155-61
  19. Ariano R, Passalacqua G, Panzani R, Scordamaglia A, Venturi S, Zoccali P, Canonica GW. Airborne pollens and prevalence of pollenosis in western Liguria: a 10-year study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 1999;9(4):229-34
  20. Liccardi G, Russo M, Saggese M, et al. Clinical significance of allergic sensitisation to Olea europaea L pollen in Naples area, Italy. Aerobiologia 1994;8:34-37
  21. Verini M, Rossi N, Verrotti A, Pelaccia G, Nicodemo A, Chiarelli F. Sensitization to environmental antigens in asthmatic children from a central Italian area.
    Sci Total Environ 2001;270(1-3):63-9
  22. Tamir R, Pick AI, Topilsky M, Kivity S. Olive pollen induces asthmatic response.
    Clin Exp Allergy 1991;21(3):329-32
  23. Rachmiel M, Waisel Y, Verliger H, Keynan N, Katz Y. Correlation between exposure to allergenic pollens and allergic manifestations. [Hebrew] Harefuah 1996;130(8):505-11, 584
  24. Geller-Bernstein C, Arad G, Keynan N, Lahoz C, Cardaba B, Waisel Y. Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europaea in Israel.
    Allergy 1996;51(5):356-9
  25. Geller-Bernstein C, Zaharan Y, Waisel Y. Sensitivity to Olea europaea pollen in different populations in Israel.
    Allerg Immunol (Paris) 1994;26(9):318-9
  26. Casanovas M, Florido F, Saenz de San Pedro B, Gonzalez P, Martinez-Alzamora F, Maranon F, Fernandez-Caldas E. Sensitization to Olea europaea: geographical differences and discrepancies. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1997;25(4):159-66
  27. Caballero T, Romualdo L, Crespo JF, Pascual C, Munoz-Pereira M, et al. Cupressaceae pollinosis in the Madrid area.
    Clin Exp Allergy 1996;26(2):197-201
  28. Silva Palacios I, Tormo Molina R, Nunoz Rodriguez AF. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere.
    Int J Biometeorol 2000;44(3):128-33
  29. Miyahara S. Olive pollinosis in Japan. [Japanese] Arerugi 1995;44(11):1305-10
  30. Gilardi S, Torricelli R, Peeters AG, Wuthrich B. Pollinosis in Canton Ticino. A prospective study in Locarno. [German] Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1994;124(42):1841-7
  31. Blanco C, Crespo JF, Cabanas R, Vega A, Lopez C, Martinez F. Olea europaea pollen allergy. Allergy 1992;47(suppl):77
  32. Villalba M, Bantanero E, Monsalve RI. Cloning and expression of Ole e1, the major allergen from olive tree pollen.
    J Biol Chem 1994;269:15217-22
  33. Asturias JA, Arilla MC, Gomez-Bayon N, Martinez J, Martinez A, Palacios R. Cloning and expression of the panallergen profilin and the major allergen (Ole e 1) from olive tree pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(3):365-72
  34. De Cesare F, Pini C, Di Felice G, Caiaffa MF, Macchia L, Tursi A, Tinghino R, Palumbo S, Sallusto F, Federico R. Purification and fine characterization of a major allergen from Olea europaea pollen extract.
    Allergy 1993;48(4):248-54
  35. Villalba M, Lopez-Otin C, Martin-Orozco E, Monsalve RI, Palomino P, Lahoz C, Rodriguez R. Isolation of three allergenic fractions of the major allergen from Olea europea pollen and N-terminal amino acid sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1990;172(2):523-8
  36. Obispo TM, Melero JA, Carpizo JA, Carreira J, Lombardero M. The main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) is also present in other species of the Oleaceae family.
    Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23(4):311-6
  37. Lauzurica P, Maruri N, Galocha B, Gonzalez J, Diaz R, Palomino P, Hernandez D, Garcia R, Lahoz C. Olive (Olea europea) pollen allergens--II. Isolation and characterization of two major antigens.
    Mol Immunol 1988;25(4):337-44
  38. Batanero E, Villalba M, Ledesma A, Puente XS, Rodriguez R. Ole e 3, an olive-tree allergen, belongs to a widespread family of pollen proteins. Eur J Biochem 1996;241(3):772-8
  39. Boluda L, Alonso C, Fernandez-Caldas E. Purification, characterization, and partial sequencing of two new allergens of Olea europaea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101(2 Pt 1):210-6
  40. Boluda L, Alonso C, Fernandez-Caldas E. Characterization of 2 new allergens of Olea europaea, Ole e 4, and Ole e 5.
    Allergy 1997;52(S37):81
  41. Rodriguez R, Villalba M, Monsalve RI, Batanero E. The spectrum of olive pollen allergens. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;125(3):185-95
  42. Tejera ML, Villalba M, Batanero E, Rodriguez R. Identification, isolation, and characterization of Ole e 7, a new allergen of olive tree pollen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104(4 Pt 1):797-802
  43. Huecas S, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Ole e 9, a major olive pollen allergen is a 1,3-beta-glucanase. Isolation, characterization, amino acid sequence, and tissue specificity.
    J Biol Chem 2001;276(30):27959-66
  44. Barral P, Batanero E, Palomares O, Quiralte J, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. A major allergen from pollen defines a novel family of plant proteins and shows intra- and interspecies [correction of interspecie] cross-reactivity.
    J Immunol 2004 Mar 15;172(6):3644-51
  45. Quiralte J, Gonzalez E, Arias De Saavedra JM, Villalba M, Florido JF, et al. Immunological activity of recombinant Ole e 1 in patients with Olea europaea pollinosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2000;122(2):101-7
  46. Huecas S, Villalba M, Gonzalez E, Martinez-Ruiz A, Rodriguez R. Production and detailed characterization of biologically active olive pollen allergen Ole e 1 secreted by the yeast Pichia pastoris.
    Eur J Biochem 1999;261(2):539-46
  47. Villalba M, Batanero E, Lopez-Otin C, Sanchez LM, Monsalve RI, Gonzalez de la Pena MA, Lahoz C, Rodriguez R. The amino acid sequence of Ole e I, the major allergen from olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen.
    Eur J Biochem 1993;216(3):863-9
  48. Waisel Y, Geller-Bernstein C, Keynan N, Arad G. Antigenicity of the pollen proteins of various cultivars of Olea europaea.
    Allergy 1996;51(11):819-25
  49. Duffort O, Palomares O, Lombardero M, Villalba M, Barber D, Rodriguez R, Polo F. Variability of Ole e 9 Allergen in Olive Pollen Extracts: Relevance of Minor Allergens in Immunotherapy Treatments. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006 Apr 3;140(2):131-138
  50. Bousquet J, Guerin B, Hewitt B, Lim S, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. III: Cross reactivity among Oleaceae pollens. Clin Allergy 1985;15(5):439-48
  51. Gonzalez E, Villalba M, Rodriguez R. Immunological and molecular characterization of the major allergens from lilac and privet pollens overproduced in Pichia pastoris.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31(2):313-21
  52. Liccardi G, Russo M, Saggese M, D’Amato M, D’Amato G. Evaluation of serum specific IgE and skin responsiveness to allergenic extracts of Oleaceae pollens (Olea europaea, Fraxinus excelsior and Ligustrum vulgare) in patients with respiratory allergy. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 1995;23(1):41-6
  53. Batanero E, Villalba M, Lopez-Otin C, Rodriguez R. Isolation and characterization of an olive allergen-like protein from lilac pollen. Sequence analysis of three cDNA encoding protein isoforms.
    Eur J Biochem  1994;221(1):187-93
  54. Barderas R, Purohit A, Papanikolaou I, Rodriguez R, Pauli G, Villalba M. Cloning, expression, and clinical significance of the major allergen from ash pollen, Fra e 1.
    J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115(2):351-7
  55. Palomares O, Swoboda I, Villalba M, Balic N, Spitzauer S, Rodriguez R, Valenta R. The major allergen of olive pollen ole e 1 is a diagnostic marker for sensitization to Oleaceae. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006 Jul 21;141(2):110-118
  56. Gonzalez RM, Cortes C, Carreira J. Un alergeno minoritario del pollen de Olea europaea compartido por cuatro especies communes de gramineas. Rev Esp Allergol Immunol Clin 1994;9:46-50
  57. Carreira J, Obispo T, Lombardero M. Alergenos de Olea Europaea y otras especies relacionadas. Rev Esp Allergol Immunol Clin 1994;9:46-50
  58. Calabozo B, Duffort O, Carpizo JA, Barber D, Polo F. Monoclonal antibodies against the major allergen of Plantago lanceolata pollen, Pla l 1: affinity chromatography purification of the allergen and development of an ELISA method for Pla l 1 measurement.
    Allergy 2001;56(5):429-35

 

As in all diagnostic testing, the diagnosis is made by the physican based on both test results and the patient history.