nGly m 6, soy

  • Allergen search puff

    SEARCH FOR ALLERGENS

    Search ImmunoCAP allergens and allergen components. Note that all information is in English.

Code: f432
Latin name: Glycine max
Source material: nGly m 6 is purified from a soy extract
Common names: Legumin, 11S Globulin, G1 subunit of glycinin, G2 subunit of glycinin, G3 subunit of glycinin, G4 subunit of glycinin, G5 subunit of glycinin.

Biological function

A legumin-like protein, an 11S Globulin.

Mw: 20-40 kDa

Other allergens isolated

Soya protein consists of 136 phytochemicals and at least 21 allergenic proteins that have been identified. , Seed proteins in Soybean comprise 2 major fractions that account for 70% to 80% of total protein composition: 11S and 7S globulins.

The following allergens have been characterised:

  • Gly m 1, a 7-8 kDa protein, also known as HPS or Soybean hydrophobic protein. ,
  • Gly m 2, an 8 kDa protein.7,
  • Gly m 3, a 12-15 kDa protein, a profilin.4
  • Gly m 4, a Bet v 1 homologue.7,
  • Gly m 5, a vicilin-like protein, also known as vicilin or alpha subunit of beta-conglycinin.1, 2, 7
  • Gly m 6, an 11S globulin (legumin-like protein), also known as legumin and Gly m Glycinin G1, Gly m Glycinin G2, Gly m Glycinin G4.1, 7,
  • Gly m 2S albumin.
  • Gly m 39kD.9
  • Gly m Bd28K.
  • Gly m Bd30K, a 30-34 kDa protein, a thiol protease of the papain family, also known as P34.
  • Gly m Lectin.
  • Gly m Bd 60K.
  • Gly m Oleosin.
  • Gly m Trypsin Inhibitor.
  • Gly m IFR, an isoflavone reductase.

Allergen Description

Gly m 6 is a legumin-like protein, also known as legumin or G subunit of glycinin. Unlike Gly m 1 and Gly m 2, major allergens to which subjects are exposed through inhalation of Soybean dust, the exposure route to the Gly m 6 allergen is Soybean ingestion.7

Legumins are seed-storage globulins that are the major components of plant seeds, including Broad bean or Fava bean, and constitute important protein sources for the human diet. Also known as 11S globulins, these proteins are quantitatively important seed-storage proteins. The 11S globulins are classified as part of the Cupin superfamily, and are large (300-450 kDa), generally hexameric, nonglycosylated members of a complex family of proteins, in which individual subunits are found both as intact precursor proteins (50-60 kDa) and composed of 2 polypeptide chains of different molecular masses and amino acid sequences (the heterodimeric form, composed of a 20- to 40-kDa chain plus a 20- to 25-kDa chain), linked together by one disulfide bridge.21, , The legumins are related to each other structurally, and are believed to share ancestors in common with vicilin-like 7S proteins.21

In addition to Gly m 6, several other legumins have been identified as food allergens, including Ana o 2 from Cashew nut, Ara h 3 and Ara h 4 from Peanut, the Soybean G1 and G2 glycinins, Cor a 9 from Hazelnut and possibly a legumin from Buckwheat.21

Sensitisation to the Soybean storage proteins Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 has been shown to be associated with severe reactions to Soybean. Therefore Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 could be considered diagnostic markers for identifying Soy-allergic subjects who are at high risk for severe clinical symptoms.1 However, in Birch tree-prevalent areas, primary sensitisation to Bet v 1 with potential clinical cross-reactivity to Soybean Gly m 4 may be frequent, especially in Soy products with a low level of processing; this factor needs to be taken into account when assessing the risk for severe Soybean-related allergic reactions, as Gly m 4 is able to cause severe allergic reactions to Soy in subjects with Birch pollen allergy.1, 5, 10

The potential benefit of evaluating Gly m 5 or Gly m 6 was demonstrated in a clinical study of 25 European adults and 5 children with confirmed Soybean allergy, where no correlation could be demonstrated between the dose of Soybean and the severity of symptoms, nor between the pattern of IgE reactivity (which was highly individual) and the severity of symptoms. However, of the group, 7 (23%) had severe Soy-related allergic reactions, and of these, 6 who experienced anaphylaxis (either by history, or during Soybean challenge) were sensitized to Gly m 5 or Gly m 6.1 The study also reported that the major Soybean storage proteins are putative major soybean allergens in children: in the 5 children with Soy allergy, a high frequency (>50%) of IgE-binding to Gly m 6, and especially to Gly m 5, was found.

Compiled by Dr Harris Steinman, developer of Allergy Advisor, http://allergyadvisor.com

References

  1. Holzhauser T, Wackermann O, Ballmer-Weber BK, Bindslev-Jensen C, Scibilia J, Perono-Garoffo L, Utsumi S, Poulsen LK, Vieths S. Soybean (Glycine max) allergy in Europe: Gly m 5 (beta-conglycinin) and Gly m 6 (glycinin) are potential diagnostic markers for severe allergic reactions to soy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;123(2):452-8.
  2. Krishnan HB, Kim WS, Jang S, Kerley MS. All three subunits of soybean beta-conglycinin are potential food allergens. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(3):938-43.
  3. Fang N, Yu S, Badger TM. Comprehensive phytochemical profile of soy protein isolate. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(12):4012-20.
  4. Wilson S, Blaschek K, de Mejia E. Allergenic proteins in soybean: processing and reduction of P34 allergenicity. Nutr Rev 2005;63(2):47-58.
  5. Mittag D, Vieths S, Vogel L, Becker WM, Rihs HP, Helbling A, Wuthrich B, Ballmer-Weber BK. Soybean allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen: clinical investigation and molecular characterization of allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113(1):148-54.
  6. Helm R, Cockrell G, Herman E, Burks A, Sampson H, Bannon G. Cellular and molecular characterization of a major soybean allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;117(1):29-37.
  7. International Union of Immunological Societies Allergen Nomenclature: IUIS official list http://www.allergen.org/Allergen.aspx. 2010
  8. Codina R, Oehling AG Jr, Lockey RF. Neoallergens in heated soybean hull. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1998;117(2):120-5.
  9. Codina R, Lockey RF, Fernandez-Caldas E, Rama R. Purification and characterization of a soybean hull allergen responsible for the Barcelona asthma outbreaks. II. Purification and sequencing of the Gly m 2 allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 1997;27(4):424-30.
  10. Kleine-Tebbe J, Vogel L, Crowell DN, Haustein UF, Vieths S. Severe oral allergy syndrome and anaphylactic reactions caused by a Bet v 1- related PR-10 protein in soybean, SAM22. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;110(5):797-804.
  11. Guo P, Piao X, Cao Y, Ou D, Li D. Recombinant Soybean Protein beta-Conglycinin alpha'-Subunit Expression and Induced Hypersensitivity Reaction in Rats. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2007;145(2):102-110.
  12. Gu X, Beardslee T, Zeece M, Sarath G, Markwell J. Identification of IgE-binding proteins in soy lecithin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2001;126(3):218-25.
  13. Tsuji H, Bando N, Hiemori M, Yamanishi R, Kimoto M, Nishikawa K, Ogawa T. Purification of characterization of soybean allergen Gly m Bd 28K. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997;61(6):942-7.
  14. Ogawa T, Tsuji H, Bando N, Kitamura K, Zhu YL, Hirano H, Nishikawa K. Identification of the soybean allergenic protein, Gly m Bd 30K, with the soybean seed 34-kDa oil-body-associated protein. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1993;57(6):1030-3.
  15. Fu TJ, Abbott UR, Hatzos C. Digestibility of food allergens and nonallergenic proteins in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid-a comparative study. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50(24):7154-60.
  16. Ogawa A, Samoto M, Takahashi K. Soybean allergens and hypoallergenic soybean products. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2000;46(6):271-9.
  17. Pons L, Chery C, Romano A, Namour F, Artesani MC, Gueant JL. The 18 kDa peanut oleosin is a candidate allergen for IgE-mediated reactions to peanuts. Allergy 2002;57 Suppl 72:88-93.
  18. Baur X, Pau M, et al. Characterization of soybean allergens causing sensitization of occupationally exposed bakers. Allergy 1996;51(5):326-30.
  19. Karamloo F, Wangorsch A, Kasahara H, Davin LB, Haustein D, Lewis NG, Vieths S. Phenylcoumaran benzylic ether and isoflavonoid reductases are a new class of cross-reactive allergens in birch pollen, fruits and vegetables. Eur J Biochem 2001;268(20):5310-20.
  20. Teuber SS, Jarvis KC, Dandekar AM, Peterson WR, Ansari AA. Identification and cloning of a complementary DNA encoding a vicilin-like proprotein, jug r 2, from English walnut kernel (Juglans regia), a major food allergen. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;104(6):1311-20.
  21. Wang F, Robotham JM, Teuber SS, Sathe SK, Roux KH. Ana o 2, a major cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut allergen of the legumin family. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2003;132(1):27-39.
  22. Rodin J, Sjodahl S, Josefsson LG, Rask L. Characterization of a Brassica napus gene encoding a cruciferin subunit: estimation of sizes of cruciferin gene families. Plant Mol Biol 1992;20(3):559-63.
  23. Casey R. Distribution and some properties of seed globulins. in Shewry PR (ed): Seed Proteins. Boston, Kluwer Academic. 1999:159-69.

 

As in all diagnostic testing, the diagnosis is made by the physican based on both test results and the patient history.