Egg

Further Reading

Egg white f1

Egg yolk f75

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Code: f245
Source material: Freeze-dried content of whole hen's egg
In general, the larger the number of atopic problems in an individual, the greater the chances of food being involved.

Allergen Exposure

Foods that may contain egg include salad dressings, breads, breaded foods, muffins, pancakes, waffles, meringues, marshmallows, prepared soups and beverages, frostings, ice cream and sherbets, pie fillings, sausages, prepared meats, mayonnaise, coatings and breading for fried foods, tartar and hollandaise and other sauces. Certain vaccines grown on chick embryos may cause severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis (4).

Potential Cross-Reactivity

There is cross-reactivity between chicken egg white and turkey, duck, goose and seagull egg whites. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to egg in adults caused by cross-reactivity between pet bird dander and egg yolk livetins has been demonstrated by Mandallaz et al. (6).

Clinical Experience

Allergy to egg is generally agreed to be one of the most common causes of food allergy in infants and young children. IgE antibodies to egg white in infancy are a good indicator of atopy and predict the development of disease later in life (1). By measuring the concentration of egg-specific IgE antibodies with Pharmacia CAP System FEIA, it was possible to identify a subset of patients who are likely (>95%) to experience clinical reactions to egg (2). IgE-mediated sensitivity to egg proteins measured by RAST technology in egg-processing workers has been reported by Bernstein et al. (3). Certain vaccines grown on chick embryos may cause severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis (4). The main allergens in egg are found in the egg white, but egg yolk also contains a large portion of specific IgE-binding allergens. This was shown by Phadebas RAST and Western blotting techniques by using serum from egg-sensitive patients (5).

Review

Foods that may contain egg include salad dressings, breads, breaded foods, muffins, pancakes, waffles, meringues, marshmallows, prepared soups and beverages, frostings, ice cream and sherbets, pie fillings, sausages, prepared meats, mayonnaise, coatings and breading for fried foods, tartar and hollandaise and other sauces. Allergy to egg is generally agreed to be one of the most common causes of food allergy in infants and young children. IgE antibodies to egg white in infancy are a good indicator of atopy and predict the development of disease later in life (1). By measuring the concentration of egg-specific IgE antibodies with Pharmacia CAP System FEIA, it was possible to identify a subset of patients who are likely (>95%) to experience clinical reactions to egg (2). IgE-mediated sensitivity to egg proteins measured by RAST technology in egg-processing workers has been reported by Bernstein et al. (3). Certain vaccines grown on chick embryos may cause severe allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis (4). The main allergens in egg are found in the egg white, but egg yolk also contains a large portion of specific IgE-binding allergens. This was shown by Phadebas RAST and Western blotting techniques by using serum from egg-sensitive patients (5). IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to egg in adults caused by cross-reactivity between pet bird dander and egg yolk livetins has been demonstrated by Mandallaz et al. (6). There is cross-reactivity between chicken egg white and turkey, duck, goose and seagull egg whites.

References

  1. Sigurs N, Hattevig G, Kjellman B, Kjellman N-IM, Nilsson L, Björksten B. Appearance of atopic disease in relation to serum IgE antibodies in children followed up from birth for 4 to 15 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1994;94:757-63.
  2. Sampson HA et al. The use of CAP System FEIA in the diagnosis of food allergy in children & adolescents / Evaluation of the relationship between concentrations of food-specific IgE antibodies and the risk of positive reactions. Accepted for publication to Journal of Allergy and Immunology.
  3. Bernstein DI, Smith AB, Moller DR, Gallagher JS, Aw T-C, London M et al. Clinical and immunologic studies among egg-processing workers with occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1987;80:791-7.
  4. Lavi S, Zimmerman B, Koren G, Gold R. Administration of measles, mumps and rubella virus vaccine (live) to egg-allergic children. JAMA 1990;263:269-71.
  5. Anet J, Back JF, Baker RS, Barnett D, Burley RW, Howden MEH. Allergens in the white and yolk of hen´s egg.  Int Archs Allergy Appl Immun 1985;77:364-71.
  6. Mandallaz MM, de Weck AL, Dahinden CA. Bird-egg syndrome. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 1988;87:143-50.

 

As in all diagnostic testing, the diagnosis is made by the physican based on both test results and the patient history.