Glomerulonephritis is a type of nephritis that is accompanied by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney. It occurs in acute, subacute and chronic forms, and may be secondary to haemolytic streptococcal infection. Evidence also supports possible autoimmune mechanisms.

Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (also called pauci-immune rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis) is a rapidly progressive form characterized by the presence of epithelial crescents and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, but few, if any, immune deposits.

Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (also called crescentic glomerulonephritis) is an acute form marked by a rapid progression to end-stage renal failure and, histologically, by profuse epithelial proliferation, often with epithelial crescents. Principal signs are anuria, proteinuria, haematuria and anaemia.

Other forms of glomerulonephritis exist but are not listed here (see specialist literature).